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Source: Natural Earth , 1:10m resolution.

An interesting challenge in cartography is getting data of the appropriate resolution. As Lewis Fry Richardson nike black white roshe run trainers club
, the more precisely you measure the length of a coastline, the longer it appears; geographic shapes have infinite complexity. Digital displays, in contrast, are limited by pixels. Choosing too high a resolution increases download time and slows rendering, while too low a resolution elides important detail. This challenge is exacerbated by air jordan retro 4 toro red
that desire multi-resolution geometry!

To simplify geometry to suit the displayed resolution, various line simplification algorithms exist. While Douglas–Peucker is the most well-known, Visvalingam’s algorithm may be more effective and has a remarkably intuitive explanation: it progressively removes points with the least-perceptible change. Amazingly, simplification often allows the elimination of 95% or more points while retaining sufficient detail for visualization. For example, the nike wmns air max 1 cut out metallic red bronze huaraches
file used to draw the continental United States above can be reduced from 531KB to 27KB with only minor visual changes.

To determine which point removal incurs the smallest visible change, Visvalingam’s algorithm computes triangles formed by successive triplets of points along each line; the point with the smallest associated triangle is removed. After each removal, the area of neighboring triangles is recomputed and the process is repeated.

For example, consider this line of six points:

Ignoring the endpoints, the effective area of each point is determined by its associated triangle:

The purple triangle is the smallest, so the fifth point is removed first. This removal requires recomputing the area of the adjacent red triangle:

The green triangle is now the smallest, so the third point is removed, and the adjacent orange and red triangles are recomputed. This process continues until only the endpoints remain:

There is no guarantee that removing a point increases the area of the adjacent triangles; thus, the algorithm considers the effective area as the larger of the associated triangle and the previously-removed triangle.

One of the best features of Visvalingam’s algorithm is that the effective area can be subsequently stored in the geometry. For example, a point can have a z -coordinate that indicates its effective area, allowing efficient filtering for dynamic simplification even when the algorithm is run on the server. An example of this technique is shown at the top of the page, though more commonly simplification is done based on zoom level.

On Wednesday, as part of the Autumn Budget, air jordan 1 women shoes
that the government will be creating a Geospatial Commission “to establish how to open up freely the OS MasterMap data to UK-based small businesses”. It will be supported by new funding of £80 million over two years. The Commission will be looking at a range of things including:

That’s a big pot of money to get something done and a remit that ticks all of the right boxes. As the ODI blog post notes, it creates “the opportunity for national mapping agencies to adapt to a future where they become stewards for national mapping data infrastructure, making sure that data is available to meet the needs of everyone in the country”.

So, I’m really surprised that the many of the reactions from the open data community have been fairly negative. I understand the concerns that the end result might not be a completely open Mastermap . There are many, many ways in which this could end up with little or no change to the status quo. That’s certainly true if we ignore the opportunity to embed some change.

From my perspective, this is the biggest step towards a more open future for UK geospatial data since the first OS Open Data release in 2010. (I remember excitedly hitting the publish button to make their first Linked Data release publicly accessible)

Anyone who has been involved with open data in the UK will have encountered the Ordnance Survey licensing issues that are massively inhibiting both the release and use of open data in the UK. It’s a frustration of mine that these issues aren’t manifest in the various open data indexes.

In my opinion, anything that moves us forward from the current licensing position is to be welcomed. Yes, we all want a completely open MasterMap. That’s our shared goal. But how do we get there?

We’ve just seen the government task and resource itself to do something that can help us achieve that goal. It’s taken concerted effort by a number of people to get to this point. We should be focusing on what we all can do, right now, to help this process stay on track. Dismissing it as an already failed attempt isn’t helpful.

I think there’s a great deal that the community could do to engage with and support this process.

Here’s a few ideas of things of ways that we could inject some useful thinking into the process:

Personally, I’m choosing to be optimistic.Let’s get to work to create the result we want to see.

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Aberrant energy metabolism represents a hallmark of cancer and contributes to numerous aggressive behaviors of cancer cells, including cell death and survival. Despite the poor prognosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), due to the inevitable development of drug resistance, metabolic reprograming of MCL cells remains an unexplored area. Posttranslational modification of proteins via O- GlcNAcylation is an ideal sensor for nutritional changes mediated by O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and is removed by O -GlcNAcase (OGA). Using various small-molecule inhibitors of OGT and OGA, we found for the first time that O- GlcNAcylation potentiates MCL response to bortezomib. CRISPR interference of MGEA5 (encoding OGA) validated the apoptosis sensitization by O- GlcNAcylation and OGA inhibition. To identify the potential clinical candidates, we tested MCL response to drug-like OGA inhibitor, ketoconazole, and verified that it exerts similar sensitizing effect on bortezomib-induced apoptosis. Investigations into the underlying molecular mechanisms reveal that bortezomib and ketoconazole act in concert to cause the accumulation of truncated Bid (tBid). Not only does ketoconazole potentiate tBid induction, but also increases tBid stability through O- GlcNAcylation that interferes with tBid ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Remarkably, ketoconazole strongly enhances bortezomib-induced apoptosis in de novo bortezomib-resistant MCL cells and in patient-derived primary cells with minimal cytotoxic effect on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells and hepatocytes, suggesting its potential utility as a safe and effective adjuvant for MCL. Together, our findings provide novel evidence that combination of bortezomib and ketoconazole or other OGA inhibitors may present a promising strategy for the treatment of drug-resistant MCL. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 484–96. ©2017 AACR .

Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Molecular Cancer Therapeutics Online (


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